Patient Education

Delmarva Mobile Regenerative Orthopedic Medicine And Pain Management would like to be your partner in health care. Feel free to ask your questions and share your concerns with us. We will work with you to develop a program for the care and treatment you need.

We welcome you to our practice and look forward to caring for you.

Delmarva Mobile Regenerative Orthopedic Medicine And Pain Management provides educational material on a range of common neuro-orthopedic and physical conditions and procedures that, hopefully, will provide sufficient information to allow the most intelligent and informed decisions to be made.

Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis, commonly known as joint aspiration, is a non-surgical procedure during which excess synovial fluid (fluid from a joint) is drained with a sterile needle and syringe. Usually performed in the doctor's office, arthrocentesis is administered to provide relief to patients with swelling, inflammation, and pain in any joint where there is an excess accumulation of fluid (effusion). Joints typically drained in this way include the shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, wrist, or ankle. ...


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Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

The rotator cuff is the thick band of muscles and associated tendons that cover the top of the upper arm and hold in it place, providing support and stability to the shoulder joint. The rotator cuff also allows for a full range of motion while keeping the ball of the arm bone in the shoulder socket. These tendons can become partially or completely torn as a result of a rotator cuff tear or injury. A rotator cuff tear often occurs as a result of injury or overuse of the muscles over a long period of time. Rotator cuff tears typically involve pain when lifting or lowering the arm, muscle weakness and atrophy, and discomfort at rest, particularly if pressure is placed on the affected shoulder. ...


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Bursal Sac Injections

A bursal sac is filled with fluid that provides a cushion between muscles/tendons and bones to decrease friction and irritation. There are bursal sacs around most of the body's joints. When a bursal sac gets infected or inflamed, it can lead to a painful condition called "bursitis." Although often caused by repetitive movement or overuse of a joint during sports or intense physical activity, bursitis can also result from injury, or arthritis of a joint. ...


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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The carpal tunnel is a narrow, fibrous passage in the wrist that protects the median nerve, which runs down the length of arm and through the wrist into the hand. It controls some hand movement, and sensation in the thumb, index and middle fingers, and half of the ring finger. Irritation or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel can cause tingling and numbness in the fingers, a condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). ...


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Corticosteroid Injections

Corticosteroid injections have been used for decades to temporarily relieve pain and inflammation in joints and soft tissues, and to relieve systemic inflammatory reactions. The advantage to injecting corticosteroid medication rather than taking it orally is that it is delivered more quickly to the affected area and often has more effective results. Corticosteroid injections are routinely used to reduce the pain and swelling of bursitis, tendonitis and arthritis. In addition, they are helpful in treating lupus, scleroderma and severe allergic reactions. Corticosteroid injections are also very effective in reducing spinal or radiating limb pain (radicular pain) when injected into the epidural space, which is between the dura, the outer layer covering the brain and spinal column, and the spine itself. When used this way, they are referred to as epidurals, which are frequently used for labor pains during childbirth. ...


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De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

De Quervain's tenosynovitis is an inflammation of the two tendons that run from the back of thumb and down the side of the wrist. The causes of De Quervain's tenosynovitis are unknown, but it has been linked to wrist injury, overuse/repetitive motion, pregnancy and inflammatory arthritis. It is much more common in women than in men, and in people who have diabetes or arthritis. The disease was first identified in 1895 by Fritz de Quervain, after whom it is named. ...


Read More...
 

Dupuytren's Contracture

Dupuytren's contracture is a rare hand disorder caused by a thickening of the layer of fibrous tissue beneath the skin of the palm and the finger(s). This thickening causes tendons to tighten (contract), which makes the finger difficult to extend. As a result, the finger is continually "curled up." Although more common in men than women, the cause of Dupuytren's contracture is unknown. However, people who get the condition tend to drink significant amounts of alcohol; have diabetes; smoke; or have seizures similar to those from epilepsy. ...


Read More...
 

Enthesopathy

Enthesopathy is a disorder of the entheses, which are the connective tissues between bones and tendons or ligaments. Enthesopathy occurs when these tissues have been damaged, due to overuse, injury or infection. It may also be caused by an inflammatory condition such as psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis, or gout. Some research indicates that enthesopathy may develop as a result of an autoimmune disorder. Enthesopathy may develop in various parts of the body, including the shoulders, hips, elbows, wrists, knees, heels or feet. This condition is typically found in individuals over the age of 50, and is usually characterized by symptoms of severe pain and inflammation. ...


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Entrapped Nerve Hydrodissection

Entrapped nerve hydrodissection is a minimally invasive non-surgical procedure that uses ultrasound technology to alleviate symptoms of compressed nerve disorders. Compressed nerve disorders result when direct pressure is placed on a single nerve, producing numbness, pain, weakness or a tingling sensation. Compressed nerve disorders may be caused by a variety of factors, including health conditions such as diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, injury, pregnancy or obesity. Entrapped nerve hydrodissection is generally recommended as a treatment for compressed nerve disorders after conservative treatments have been unsuccessful at relieving painful symptoms. ...


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Facet Joint Syndrome

Facet joint syndrome is a condition that occurs when the facet joints of the spine become damaged or worn out. The facet joints are the small joints located between the bones of the spine; they are lined with cartilage and synovial fluid that allows them to glide easily over each other. They are also intertwined with nerves that run from the spinal cord to the arms, legs and other parts of the body. The facet joints are in constant motion and provide the spine with flexibility that allows movement, and stability that keeps the back from moving too far forward or twisting too far. ...


Read More...
 

Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection is administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue. ...


Read More...
 

Golf-Related Injuries

Swinging a golf club may look easy, but it can actually lead to a host of injuries, many of which may require treatment. Not surprisingly, thanks to the pressure a golf swing exerts, the lower back is the area that sustains the greatest number of reported injuries each year. Coming in a close second, however, is the elbow, which is subject to two types of problems, medial epicondylitis, also known as "golfer's elbow," and lateral epicondylitis, also called "tennis elbow." With golfer's elbow, pain manifests itself on the inside of the upper arm near the elbow, whereas with tennis elbow, the pain is on the outside of the upper arm. Both of these conditions are usually caused by chronic overuse and not traumatic injury, and are possibly the result of gripping the club incorrectly. ...


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Herniated Disc

A herniated disc (also called a ruptured or slipped disc) is a damaged "cushion" between two bones in the spine (vertebrae). Normally, the gelatinous discs between the vertebrae hold the bones in place and act as shock absorbers, permitting the spine to bend smoothly. When a disc protrudes beyond its normal parameters, and its tough outer layer of cartilage cracks, the disc is considered "herniated." ...


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Lateral Epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is an elbow injury that occurs as a result of the overuse of the muscles and tendons of the forearm and elbow. The pain associated with this condition affects the lateral epicondyle, the area where the tendons of the forearm connect with the bony outer portion of the elbow. Repetitive movement and constant use during certain types of activities may put excessive strain on the elbow tendons. Tennis elbow may occur in tennis players or individuals who participate in certain athletic activities, but may also occur in people who have jobs that involve repetitive motions of the wrist and arm, such as carpenters, or people in construction related trades. ...


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Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain is the most common cause for a work-related disability and one of the main reasons for people staying home from work. The lower back is one of the most important parts of the body as it holds most of our body weight when we stand and is involved in movement when we bend or twist at the waist. Because of its pivotal role and frequent use, the lower back is susceptible to injury and chronic pain. Lower back pain is especially common in older adults who may have decreased bone strength and muscle elasticity. The spongy cartilage pads, called intervertebral discs, that allow for flexibility may wear away and weaken in an elderly person. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Facet-Joint Injections

Lumbar facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for lower-back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool to determine whether facet-joint inflammation is the source of the pain. Facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered either into the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting corticosteroid with a local anesthetic. Although the anesthetic provides only very temporary pain relief, the corticosteroid reduces inflammation and can relieve pain for up to a few years. Enduring pain relief from the injection is diagnostically significant, indicating that the pain originates in the facet joint that received the injection. ...


Read More...
 

Medial Epicondylitis

Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer's elbow, is a painful condition in which the tendons connecting the forearm to the elbow have become damaged due to injury or overuse. Previously thought to be a form of tendonitis, or inflammation of the tendon, medial epicondylitis is now considered to be a form of tendonosis in which the collagen fibers making up the tendon have deteriorated. Patients with this condition experience pain on the inside of the elbow that may radiate into the forearm. This pain results when the epicondyle puts pressure on the ulnar nerve, a nerve in the forearm. Most often, medial epicondylitis can be treated successfully by simple measures like resting the arm and applying ice. In some cases, however, it requires surgical correction. ...


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Meniscus Tear

The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of cartilage located in the knee, that acts as a shock absorber between the shinbone and the thighbone. There are two minisci within each knee. The meniscus on the inside part of the knee is known as the medial meniscus and the meniscus located on the outside of the knee is referred to as the lateral meniscus. A meniscus tear may occur during an activity in which the knee is forcibly twisted or rotated. Common injuries in athletes, meniscus tears may also occur in older adults whose cartilage has worn away as a result of of wear and tear, or in anyone who suffers a traumatic injury. ...


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Microdiscectomy

A microdiscectomy, also known as microdecompression spine surgery, is a surgical procedure that removes part of an impinged intervertebral disc in order to relieve pain, weakness and numbness throughout the body. It is usually reserved for patients with severe symptoms that do not respond to more conservative treatments, and significantly affect the patient's quality of life. ...


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Morton's Neuroma

Morton's neuroma is a painful condition in which excess fibrous tissue accumulates around a nerve in the ball the foot, usually between the third and fourth toes. Patients may experience pain, burning, tingling or numbness in the foot, radiating into the toes, and often report feeling as if they are walking on a pebble. Pain may be soothed by taking weight off the foot or by massaging the area. The pain of Morton's neuroma is likely to worsen over time, becoming more severe and more persistent. The condition is found more frequently in women than in men. ...


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Myofascial Pain

Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic condition in which trigger points (muscle knots) develop in certain muscles, usually ones that have been injured or overused. Jobs and recreational activities that involve repetitive motions, in which muscles repeatedly contract, are common causes. Trigger points can also be caused by stress and anxiety. Myofascial pain is most common in middle-aged adults, although people of any age may be affected. ...


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Nerve Pain

Nerve pain often results from nerve entrapment syndrome, the damage caused when a nerve is pinched or compressed. Patients with this condition may experience mild or severe pain that is temporary or chronic. The nerves of the body extend from the brain and spinal cord, threading through to every region of the body. The compression of the nerve can take place in the spine, causing pain to radiate into the limbs, or can take place in other parts of the body. It may occur do to a traumatic injury, repeated stress, or an underlying disease condition. ...


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Osteoarthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It develops as the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wears down over time. Over the years, as stress is put on the joints, cartilage wears thin and sometimes even erodes completely, resulting in stiffness and pain. It occurs more frequently in older individuals, however it sometimes develops in athletes from overuse of a joint or after an injury. It commonly affects the fingers, knees, lower back and hips, and is often treated with medication, specific exercises, and physical therapy. In severe cases, joint replacement surgery may be suggested. Osteoarthritis tends to get worse over time. ...


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Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is a treatment method for improving limited body movement and functionality that are a result of disease, injury or aging. Treatment involves restorative exercises that focus on developing muscle strength, flexibility, balance, posture and coordination, and that provide overall pain relief. Physical therapy is designed to promote a patient's overall health and fitness, prevent reinjury and maximize quality of life. It may be prescribed as an initial form of treatment for certain conditions or injuries, or to restore strength and function after surgery. ...


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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


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Platelet-Rich-Plasma Injections

Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections use components of the body's own blood to stimulate healing. Platelets, which are usually associated with coagulation (clotting), are also, according to recent research, able to assist in mending and strengthening damaged tissue by increasing certain growth factors. During the normal healing process, the body uses platelets to promote new-tissue growth and repair injuries. By supplementing platelet content, the healing process is accelerated. There is ongoing research on the efficacy of PRP injections, and some medical professionals remain skeptical about their value. ...


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Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is one of four ligaments that helps support the knee and protects the shin bone (tibia) from sliding too far backwards. The cruciate ligaments are located inside the knee joint and cross over each other, forming an "X". The anterior cruciate ligament is in the front and the posterior cruciate ligament is located behind it in the back of the knee. These ligaments control the back and forth motion of the knee. ...


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Prolotherapy

Prolotherapy (proliferative therapy) is a treatment for patients with chronic joint and muscle pain; it is offered as an alternative to over-the-counter pain relievers (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and, in some cases, surgery. Prolotherapy is based on the premise that the injection of a mild irritant, usually dextrose, into a joint, ligament or tendon triggers a localized inflammatory response, thereby stimulating an increase in blood supply to damaged tissue. With this increased blood flow comes an increased supply of immune cells and collagen to assist in repairing the damage, and stimulating the formation of new, healthy connective tissue. ...


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Prolozone® Therapy

Prolozone® therapy is an alternative, nonsurgical treatment that may be used for all forms of musculoskeletal and joint pain. It involves injection therapy of collagen-producing substances and ozone gas into the patient's connective tissue. Such injections have been shown to result in the reconstruction of damaged tissue. Prolozone therapy is an improvement over traditional prolotherapy because of its use of ozone, a substance that stimulates the body's ability to repair joints. Prolozone is used more commonly in Europe than in the United States. ...


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Prolotherapy FAQs

Prolotherapy (proliferative therapy) is a treatment method for chronic pain. Its proposed mechanism of action is that a precise injection of a dextrose and lidocaine solution triggers a localized inflammatory response, thereby stimulating blood supply to the area and prompting the incoming supply of immune cells to repair the tissue. Prolotherapy can stimulate the formation of new, healthy tissue in an area in which existing tissue has been damaged or weakened. ...


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Shoulder FAQs

What are possible causes of shoulder pain?

Shoulder pain is a common ailment experienced by many people, although the incidence of shoulder pain tends to increase with age. This pain may be caused by a number of different shoulder conditions, and may be acute or chronic, and caused by injury or overuse. Damage or injury may occur within the muscles, ligaments, tendons and bones. Common shoulder conditions may include: ...


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Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is a displacement of one of the bones of the spine. When the displaced vertebra slips out of its normal location onto the bone beneath it, it may compress a spinal nerve, causing pain. This condition most commonly occurs in the lumbar (lower) region of the back and may occur for a variety of reasons. Spondylolisthesis is graded by radiologists according to the amount of slippage that has occurred, Grade I being the mildest displacement and Grade IV the most serious. ...


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Steroid Injections for Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes, pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints. Treatment for arthritis may vary, but the main goal is to reduce inflammation and pain. Most patients may try several different treatment options before finding a method that works best for their individual condition. Steroid injections are an advanced treatment option for patients with arthritis and other sources of joint pain, that have not responded well to other treatments such as exercise and oral medications. These injections deliver relief directly to the source of the pain and are considered safe for nearly all patients. ...


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Tarsal Tunnel Injections

Tarsal tunnel injections are a treatment for tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, a condition characterized by chronic pain in the foot and ankle. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by abnormal compression on the tibial nerve, a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies sensation to the foot. Although tarsal tunnel syndrome is not a serious condition, the pain it causes can be acute. Patients may also experience sensations of burning, cramping, tingling or numbness. Fortunately, tarsal tunnel injections can provide welcome relief from these symptoms. ...


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Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is a disorder of the foot that may result in significant pain. The tarsal tunnel, the canal that runs between the inner ankle and the band of ligaments that stretch across the foot, houses several vital arteries, nerves and tendons, which provide flexibility to the foot. Since the walls of this tunnel consist of either bone or tough fibrous material through which these blood vessels, tendons and nerves have to pass, the inflexibility of the walls may create a problem. ...


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Tendinosis

Tendinosis, as opposed to acute tendonitis, is a chronic degenerative disorder, involving tiny tears in the connective tissue of the tendons, the bands that connect muscle to bone. This condition can occur anywhere in the body, but most often affects the shoulder, knee, biceps and Achilles tendons. This condition frequently affects athletes and happens when too much stress is placed on the tendon as a result of overuse, improper movement technique or traumatic injury. ...


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Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an inflammation of one of the tendons, the soft flexible cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone. Such inflammations can occur as a result of overuse or traumatic injury. Tendonitis can occur anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in joints such as the shoulder, knee, wrist, ankle and elbow. ...


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Tennis-Related Injuries

Swinging a tennis racket over and over may be good exercise, but it puts a lot of strain on the elbow and shoulder, and can cause some painful repetitive-motion injuries. The most common injury is tennis elbow, which is an inflammation of the muscles and tendons of the forearm where they attach to the humerus (upper arm) bone. The backhand stroke is usually the culprit. The pain manifests itself in the outer elbow, and often gets worse unless it is treated. Tennis elbow can make everyday activities that involve using the arm painful. ...


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Trigger-Point Injections

Trigger-point injections treat pain in areas that have developed trigger points, which are knots of muscle that form when muscles contract and but cannot relax. Trigger points are caused by injury to or overuse of the affected muscle; they can also be caused by stress and anxiety. They can irritate the nerves around them, which causes pain in other areas of the body. The chronic pain brought on by trigger points can also decrease the affected muscle's range of motion. ...


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Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Arthritis is commonly caused by the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wearing down over time, or an inflammation in the lining of the joints, which in addition to pain, may result in redness, heat, swelling and loss of movement in the affected joints. Over time, joints affected by arthritis may become severely damaged. There are different types of arthritis, and depending on the cause, may affect people of different ages. Some types of arthritis may cause damage to other organs of the body in addition to the joints. ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Joint Injections

Joint injections are a minimally invasive treatment for relieving pain caused by inflammatory joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, tendonitis, bursitis and gout. To reduce pain and inflammation from these conditions, medications such as corticosteroids and hyaluronic-acid preparations are sometimes injected into the problem joint. The medications affect only the targeted areas, and usually do not cause side effects. Joint injections are administered under local anesthesia, and cause only brief, mild discomfort. ...


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Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis, commonly known as joint aspiration, is a non-surgical procedure during which excess synovial fluid (fluid from a joint) is drained with a sterile needle and syringe. Usually performed in the doctor's office, arthrocentesis is administered to provide relief to patients with swelling, inflammation, and pain in any joint where there is an excess accumulation of fluid (effusion). Joints typically drained in this way include the shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, wrist, or ankle. ...


Read More...
 

Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

The rotator cuff is the thick band of muscles and associated tendons that cover the top of the upper arm and hold in it place, providing support and stability to the shoulder joint. The rotator cuff also allows for a full range of motion while keeping the ball of the arm bone in the shoulder socket. These tendons can become partially or completely torn as a result of a rotator cuff tear or injury. A rotator cuff tear often occurs as a result of injury or overuse of the muscles over a long period of time. Rotator cuff tears typically involve pain when lifting or lowering the arm, muscle weakness and atrophy, and discomfort at rest, particularly if pressure is placed on the affected shoulder. ...


Read More...
 

Bursal Sac Injections

A bursal sac is filled with fluid that provides a cushion between muscles/tendons and bones to decrease friction and irritation. There are bursal sacs around most of the body's joints. When a bursal sac gets infected or inflamed, it can lead to a painful condition called "bursitis." Although often caused by repetitive movement or overuse of a joint during sports or intense physical activity, bursitis can also result from injury, or arthritis of a joint. ...


Read More...
 

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The carpal tunnel is a narrow, fibrous passage in the wrist that protects the median nerve, which runs down the length of arm and through the wrist into the hand. It controls some hand movement, and sensation in the thumb, index and middle fingers, and half of the ring finger. Irritation or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel can cause tingling and numbness in the fingers, a condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). ...


Read More...
 

Corticosteroid Injections

Corticosteroid injections have been used for decades to temporarily relieve pain and inflammation in joints and soft tissues, and to relieve systemic inflammatory reactions. The advantage to injecting corticosteroid medication rather than taking it orally is that it is delivered more quickly to the affected area and often has more effective results. Corticosteroid injections are routinely used to reduce the pain and swelling of bursitis, tendonitis and arthritis. In addition, they are helpful in treating lupus, scleroderma and severe allergic reactions. Corticosteroid injections are also very effective in reducing spinal or radiating limb pain (radicular pain) when injected into the epidural space, which is between the dura, the outer layer covering the brain and spinal column, and the spine itself. When used this way, they are referred to as epidurals, which are frequently used for labor pains during childbirth. ...


Read More...
 

De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

De Quervain's tenosynovitis is an inflammation of the two tendons that run from the back of thumb and down the side of the wrist. The causes of De Quervain's tenosynovitis are unknown, but it has been linked to wrist injury, overuse/repetitive motion, pregnancy and inflammatory arthritis. It is much more common in women than in men, and in people who have diabetes or arthritis. The disease was first identified in 1895 by Fritz de Quervain, after whom it is named. ...


Read More...
 

Dupuytren's Contracture

Dupuytren's contracture is a rare hand disorder caused by a thickening of the layer of fibrous tissue beneath the skin of the palm and the finger(s). This thickening causes tendons to tighten (contract), which makes the finger difficult to extend. As a result, the finger is continually "curled up." Although more common in men than women, the cause of Dupuytren's contracture is unknown. However, people who get the condition tend to drink significant amounts of alcohol; have diabetes; smoke; or have seizures similar to those from epilepsy. ...


Read More...
 

Enthesopathy

Enthesopathy is a disorder of the entheses, which are the connective tissues between bones and tendons or ligaments. Enthesopathy occurs when these tissues have been damaged, due to overuse, injury or infection. It may also be caused by an inflammatory condition such as psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis, or gout. Some research indicates that enthesopathy may develop as a result of an autoimmune disorder. Enthesopathy may develop in various parts of the body, including the shoulders, hips, elbows, wrists, knees, heels or feet. This condition is typically found in individuals over the age of 50, and is usually characterized by symptoms of severe pain and inflammation. ...


Read More...
 

Entrapped Nerve Hydrodissection

Entrapped nerve hydrodissection is a minimally invasive non-surgical procedure that uses ultrasound technology to alleviate symptoms of compressed nerve disorders. Compressed nerve disorders result when direct pressure is placed on a single nerve, producing numbness, pain, weakness or a tingling sensation. Compressed nerve disorders may be caused by a variety of factors, including health conditions such as diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, injury, pregnancy or obesity. Entrapped nerve hydrodissection is generally recommended as a treatment for compressed nerve disorders after conservative treatments have been unsuccessful at relieving painful symptoms. ...


Read More...
 

Facet Joint Syndrome

Facet joint syndrome is a condition that occurs when the facet joints of the spine become damaged or worn out. The facet joints are the small joints located between the bones of the spine; they are lined with cartilage and synovial fluid that allows them to glide easily over each other. They are also intertwined with nerves that run from the spinal cord to the arms, legs and other parts of the body. The facet joints are in constant motion and provide the spine with flexibility that allows movement, and stability that keeps the back from moving too far forward or twisting too far. ...


Read More...
 

Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection is administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue. ...


Read More...
 

Golf-Related Injuries

Swinging a golf club may look easy, but it can actually lead to a host of injuries, many of which may require treatment. Not surprisingly, thanks to the pressure a golf swing exerts, the lower back is the area that sustains the greatest number of reported injuries each year. Coming in a close second, however, is the elbow, which is subject to two types of problems, medial epicondylitis, also known as "golfer's elbow," and lateral epicondylitis, also called "tennis elbow." With golfer's elbow, pain manifests itself on the inside of the upper arm near the elbow, whereas with tennis elbow, the pain is on the outside of the upper arm. Both of these conditions are usually caused by chronic overuse and not traumatic injury, and are possibly the result of gripping the club incorrectly. ...


Read More...
 

Herniated Disc

A herniated disc (also called a ruptured or slipped disc) is a damaged "cushion" between two bones in the spine (vertebrae). Normally, the gelatinous discs between the vertebrae hold the bones in place and act as shock absorbers, permitting the spine to bend smoothly. When a disc protrudes beyond its normal parameters, and its tough outer layer of cartilage cracks, the disc is considered "herniated." ...


Read More...
 

Lateral Epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is an elbow injury that occurs as a result of the overuse of the muscles and tendons of the forearm and elbow. The pain associated with this condition affects the lateral epicondyle, the area where the tendons of the forearm connect with the bony outer portion of the elbow. Repetitive movement and constant use during certain types of activities may put excessive strain on the elbow tendons. Tennis elbow may occur in tennis players or individuals who participate in certain athletic activities, but may also occur in people who have jobs that involve repetitive motions of the wrist and arm, such as carpenters, or people in construction related trades. ...


Read More...
 

Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain is the most common cause for a work-related disability and one of the main reasons for people staying home from work. The lower back is one of the most important parts of the body as it holds most of our body weight when we stand and is involved in movement when we bend or twist at the waist. Because of its pivotal role and frequent use, the lower back is susceptible to injury and chronic pain. Lower back pain is especially common in older adults who may have decreased bone strength and muscle elasticity. The spongy cartilage pads, called intervertebral discs, that allow for flexibility may wear away and weaken in an elderly person. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Facet-Joint Injections

Lumbar facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for lower-back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool to determine whether facet-joint inflammation is the source of the pain. Facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered either into the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting corticosteroid with a local anesthetic. Although the anesthetic provides only very temporary pain relief, the corticosteroid reduces inflammation and can relieve pain for up to a few years. Enduring pain relief from the injection is diagnostically significant, indicating that the pain originates in the facet joint that received the injection. ...


Read More...
 

Medial Epicondylitis

Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer's elbow, is a painful condition in which the tendons connecting the forearm to the elbow have become damaged due to injury or overuse. Previously thought to be a form of tendonitis, or inflammation of the tendon, medial epicondylitis is now considered to be a form of tendonosis in which the collagen fibers making up the tendon have deteriorated. Patients with this condition experience pain on the inside of the elbow that may radiate into the forearm. This pain results when the epicondyle puts pressure on the ulnar nerve, a nerve in the forearm. Most often, medial epicondylitis can be treated successfully by simple measures like resting the arm and applying ice. In some cases, however, it requires surgical correction. ...


Read More...
 

Meniscus Tear

The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of cartilage located in the knee, that acts as a shock absorber between the shinbone and the thighbone. There are two minisci within each knee. The meniscus on the inside part of the knee is known as the medial meniscus and the meniscus located on the outside of the knee is referred to as the lateral meniscus. A meniscus tear may occur during an activity in which the knee is forcibly twisted or rotated. Common injuries in athletes, meniscus tears may also occur in older adults whose cartilage has worn away as a result of of wear and tear, or in anyone who suffers a traumatic injury. ...


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Morton's Neuroma

Morton's neuroma is a painful condition in which excess fibrous tissue accumulates around a nerve in the ball the foot, usually between the third and fourth toes. Patients may experience pain, burning, tingling or numbness in the foot, radiating into the toes, and often report feeling as if they are walking on a pebble. Pain may be soothed by taking weight off the foot or by massaging the area. The pain of Morton's neuroma is likely to worsen over time, becoming more severe and more persistent. The condition is found more frequently in women than in men. ...


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Myofascial Pain

Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic condition in which trigger points (muscle knots) develop in certain muscles, usually ones that have been injured or overused. Jobs and recreational activities that involve repetitive motions, in which muscles repeatedly contract, are common causes. Trigger points can also be caused by stress and anxiety. Myofascial pain is most common in middle-aged adults, although people of any age may be affected. ...


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Nerve Pain

Nerve pain often results from nerve entrapment syndrome, the damage caused when a nerve is pinched or compressed. Patients with this condition may experience mild or severe pain that is temporary or chronic. The nerves of the body extend from the brain and spinal cord, threading through to every region of the body. The compression of the nerve can take place in the spine, causing pain to radiate into the limbs, or can take place in other parts of the body. It may occur do to a traumatic injury, repeated stress, or an underlying disease condition. ...


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Osteoarthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It develops as the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wears down over time. Over the years, as stress is put on the joints, cartilage wears thin and sometimes even erodes completely, resulting in stiffness and pain. It occurs more frequently in older individuals, however it sometimes develops in athletes from overuse of a joint or after an injury. It commonly affects the fingers, knees, lower back and hips, and is often treated with medication, specific exercises, and physical therapy. In severe cases, joint replacement surgery may be suggested. Osteoarthritis tends to get worse over time. ...


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Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is a treatment method for improving limited body movement and functionality that are a result of disease, injury or aging. Treatment involves restorative exercises that focus on developing muscle strength, flexibility, balance, posture and coordination, and that provide overall pain relief. Physical therapy is designed to promote a patient's overall health and fitness, prevent reinjury and maximize quality of life. It may be prescribed as an initial form of treatment for certain conditions or injuries, or to restore strength and function after surgery. ...


Read More...
 

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


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Platelet-Rich-Plasma Injections

Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections use components of the body's own blood to stimulate healing. Platelets, which are usually associated with coagulation (clotting), are also, according to recent research, able to assist in mending and strengthening damaged tissue by increasing certain growth factors. During the normal healing process, the body uses platelets to promote new-tissue growth and repair injuries. By supplementing platelet content, the healing process is accelerated. There is ongoing research on the efficacy of PRP injections, and some medical professionals remain skeptical about their value. ...


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Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is one of four ligaments that helps support the knee and protects the shin bone (tibia) from sliding too far backwards. The cruciate ligaments are located inside the knee joint and cross over each other, forming an "X". The anterior cruciate ligament is in the front and the posterior cruciate ligament is located behind it in the back of the knee. These ligaments control the back and forth motion of the knee. ...


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Prolotherapy

Prolotherapy (proliferative therapy) is a treatment for patients with chronic joint and muscle pain; it is offered as an alternative to over-the-counter pain relievers (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and, in some cases, surgery. Prolotherapy is based on the premise that the injection of a mild irritant, usually dextrose, into a joint, ligament or tendon triggers a localized inflammatory response, thereby stimulating an increase in blood supply to damaged tissue. With this increased blood flow comes an increased supply of immune cells and collagen to assist in repairing the damage, and stimulating the formation of new, healthy connective tissue. ...


Read More...
 

Prolozone® Therapy

Prolozone® therapy is an alternative, nonsurgical treatment that may be used for all forms of musculoskeletal and joint pain. It involves injection therapy of collagen-producing substances and ozone gas into the patient's connective tissue. Such injections have been shown to result in the reconstruction of damaged tissue. Prolozone therapy is an improvement over traditional prolotherapy because of its use of ozone, a substance that stimulates the body's ability to repair joints. Prolozone is used more commonly in Europe than in the United States. ...


Read More...
 

Prolotherapy FAQs

Prolotherapy (proliferative therapy) is a treatment method for chronic pain. Its proposed mechanism of action is that a precise injection of a dextrose and lidocaine solution triggers a localized inflammatory response, thereby stimulating blood supply to the area and prompting the incoming supply of immune cells to repair the tissue. Prolotherapy can stimulate the formation of new, healthy tissue in an area in which existing tissue has been damaged or weakened. ...


Read More...
 

Shoulder FAQs

What are possible causes of shoulder pain?

Shoulder pain is a common ailment experienced by many people, although the incidence of shoulder pain tends to increase with age. This pain may be caused by a number of different shoulder conditions, and may be acute or chronic, and caused by injury or overuse. Damage or injury may occur within the muscles, ligaments, tendons and bones. Common shoulder conditions may include: ...


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Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is a displacement of one of the bones of the spine. When the displaced vertebra slips out of its normal location onto the bone beneath it, it may compress a spinal nerve, causing pain. This condition most commonly occurs in the lumbar (lower) region of the back and may occur for a variety of reasons. Spondylolisthesis is graded by radiologists according to the amount of slippage that has occurred, Grade I being the mildest displacement and Grade IV the most serious. ...


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Steroid Injections for Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes, pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints. Treatment for arthritis may vary, but the main goal is to reduce inflammation and pain. Most patients may try several different treatment options before finding a method that works best for their individual condition. Steroid injections are an advanced treatment option for patients with arthritis and other sources of joint pain, that have not responded well to other treatments such as exercise and oral medications. These injections deliver relief directly to the source of the pain but are not considered safe for all patients. Alternatively, Regenerative medicine techniques are considered safe, natural, and without side effects. ...


Read More...
 

Tarsal Tunnel Injections

Tarsal tunnel injections are a treatment for tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, a condition characterized by chronic pain in the foot and ankle. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by abnormal compression on the tibial nerve, a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies sensation to the foot. Although tarsal tunnel syndrome is not a serious condition, the pain it causes can be acute. Patients may also experience sensations of burning, cramping, tingling or numbness. Fortunately, tarsal tunnel injections can provide welcome relief from these symptoms. ...


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Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is a disorder of the foot that may result in significant pain. The tarsal tunnel, the canal that runs between the inner ankle and the band of ligaments that stretch across the foot, houses several vital arteries, nerves and tendons, which provide flexibility to the foot. Since the walls of this tunnel consist of either bone or tough fibrous material through which these blood vessels, tendons and nerves have to pass, the inflexibility of the walls may create a problem. ...


Read More...
 

Tendinosis

Tendinosis, as opposed to acute tendonitis, is a chronic degenerative disorder, involving tiny tears in the connective tissue of the tendons, the bands that connect muscle to bone. This condition can occur anywhere in the body, but most often affects the shoulder, knee, biceps and Achilles tendons. This condition frequently affects athletes and happens when too much stress is placed on the tendon as a result of overuse, improper movement technique or traumatic injury. ...


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Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an inflammation of one of the tendons, the soft flexible cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone. Such inflammations can occur as a result of overuse or traumatic injury. Tendonitis can occur anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in joints such as the shoulder, knee, wrist, ankle and elbow. ...


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Tennis-Related Injuries

Swinging a tennis racket over and over may be good exercise, but it puts a lot of strain on the elbow and shoulder, and can cause some painful repetitive-motion injuries. The most common injury is tennis elbow, which is an inflammation of the muscles and tendons of the forearm where they attach to the humerus (upper arm) bone. The backhand stroke is usually the culprit. The pain manifests itself in the outer elbow, and often gets worse unless it is treated. Tennis elbow can make everyday activities that involve using the arm painful. ...


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Trigger-Point Injections

Trigger-point injections treat pain in areas that have developed trigger points, which are knots of muscle that form when muscles contract and but cannot relax. Trigger points are caused by injury to or overuse of the affected muscle; they can also be caused by stress and anxiety. They can irritate the nerves around them, which causes pain in other areas of the body. The chronic pain brought on by trigger points can also decrease the affected muscle's range of motion. ...


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Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Arthritis is commonly caused by the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wearing down over time, or an inflammation in the lining of the joints, which in addition to pain, may result in redness, heat, swelling and loss of movement in the affected joints. Over time, joints affected by arthritis may become severely damaged. There are different types of arthritis, and depending on the cause, may affect people of different ages. Some types of arthritis may cause damage to other organs of the body in addition to the joints. ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Joint Injections

Joint injections are a minimally invasive treatment for relieving pain caused by inflammatory joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, tendonitis, bursitis and gout. To reduce pain and inflammation from these conditions, medications such as corticosteroids and hyaluronic-acid preparations are sometimes injected into the problem joint. The medications affect only the targeted areas, and usually do not cause side effects. Joint injections are administered under local anesthesia, and cause only brief, mild discomfort. ...


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Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis, commonly known as joint aspiration, is a non-surgical procedure during which excess synovial fluid (fluid from a joint) is drained with a sterile needle and syringe. Usually performed in the doctor's office, arthrocentesis is administered to provide relief to patients with swelling, inflammation, and pain in any joint where there is an excess accumulation of fluid (effusion). Joints typically drained in this way include the shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, wrist, or ankle. ...


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Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

The rotator cuff is the thick band of muscles and associated tendons that cover the top of the upper arm and hold in it place, providing support and stability to the shoulder joint. The rotator cuff also allows for a full range of motion while keeping the ball of the arm bone in the shoulder socket. These tendons can become partially or completely torn as a result of a rotator cuff tear or injury. A rotator cuff tear often occurs as a result of injury or overuse of the muscles over a long period of time. Rotator cuff tears typically involve pain when lifting or lowering the arm, muscle weakness and atrophy, and discomfort at rest, particularly if pressure is placed on the affected shoulder. ...


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Bursal Sac Injections

A bursal sac is filled with fluid that provides a cushion between muscles/tendons and bones to decrease friction and irritation. There are bursal sacs around most of the body's joints. When a bursal sac gets infected or inflamed, it can lead to a painful condition called "bursitis." Although often caused by repetitive movement or overuse of a joint during sports or intense physical activity, bursitis can also result from injury, or arthritis of a joint. ...


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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The carpal tunnel is a narrow, fibrous passage in the wrist that protects the median nerve, which runs down the length of arm and through the wrist into the hand. It controls some hand movement, and sensation in the thumb, index and middle fingers, and half of the ring finger. Irritation or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel can cause tingling and numbness in the fingers, a condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). ...


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Corticosteroid Injections

Corticosteroid injections have been used for decades to temporarily relieve pain and inflammation in joints and soft tissues, and to relieve systemic inflammatory reactions. The advantage to injecting corticosteroid medication rather than taking it orally is that it is delivered more quickly to the affected area and often has more effective results. Corticosteroid injections are routinely used to reduce the pain and swelling of bursitis, tendonitis and arthritis. In addition, they are helpful in treating lupus, scleroderma and severe allergic reactions. Corticosteroid injections are also very effective in reducing spinal or radiating limb pain (radicular pain) when injected into the epidural space, which is between the dura, the outer layer covering the brain and spinal column, and the spine itself. When used this way, they are referred to as epidurals, which are frequently used for labor pains during childbirth. ...


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De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

De Quervain's tenosynovitis is an inflammation of the two tendons that run from the back of thumb and down the side of the wrist. The causes of De Quervain's tenosynovitis are unknown, but it has been linked to wrist injury, overuse/repetitive motion, pregnancy and inflammatory arthritis. It is much more common in women than in men, and in people who have diabetes or arthritis. The disease was first identified in 1895 by Fritz de Quervain, after whom it is named. ...


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Dupuytren's Contracture

Dupuytren's contracture is a rare hand disorder caused by a thickening of the layer of fibrous tissue beneath the skin of the palm and the finger(s). This thickening causes tendons to tighten (contract), which makes the finger difficult to extend. As a result, the finger is continually "curled up." Although more common in men than women, the cause of Dupuytren's contracture is unknown. However, people who get the condition tend to drink significant amounts of alcohol; have diabetes; smoke; or have seizures similar to those from epilepsy. ...


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Enthesopathy

Enthesopathy is a disorder of the entheses, which are the connective tissues between bones and tendons or ligaments. Enthesopathy occurs when these tissues have been damaged, due to overuse, injury or infection. It may also be caused by an inflammatory condition such as psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis, or gout. Some research indicates that enthesopathy may develop as a result of an autoimmune disorder. Enthesopathy may develop in various parts of the body, including the shoulders, hips, elbows, wrists, knees, heels or feet. This condition is typically found in individuals over the age of 50, and is usually characterized by symptoms of severe pain and inflammation. ...


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Entrapped Nerve Hydrodissection

Entrapped nerve hydrodissection is a minimally invasive non-surgical procedure that uses ultrasound technology to alleviate symptoms of compressed nerve disorders. Compressed nerve disorders result when direct pressure is placed on a single nerve, producing numbness, pain, weakness or a tingling sensation. Compressed nerve disorders may be caused by a variety of factors, including health conditions such as diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, injury, pregnancy or obesity. Entrapped nerve hydrodissection is generally recommended as a treatment for compressed nerve disorders after conservative treatments have been unsuccessful at relieving painful symptoms. ...


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Facet Joint Syndrome

Facet joint syndrome is a condition that occurs when the facet joints of the spine become damaged or worn out. The facet joints are the small joints located between the bones of the spine; they are lined with cartilage and synovial fluid that allows them to glide easily over each other. They are also intertwined with nerves that run from the spinal cord to the arms, legs and other parts of the body. The facet joints are in constant motion and provide the spine with flexibility that allows movement, and stability that keeps the back from moving too far forward or twisting too far. ...


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Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection is administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue. ...


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Golf-Related Injuries

Swinging a golf club may look easy, but it can actually lead to a host of injuries, many of which may require treatment. Not surprisingly, thanks to the pressure a golf swing exerts, the lower back is the area that sustains the greatest number of reported injuries each year. Coming in a close second, however, is the elbow, which is subject to two types of problems, medial epicondylitis, also known as "golfer's elbow," and lateral epicondylitis, also called "tennis elbow." With golfer's elbow, pain manifests itself on the inside of the upper arm near the elbow, whereas with tennis elbow, the pain is on the outside of the upper arm. Both of these conditions are usually caused by chronic overuse and not traumatic injury, and are possibly the result of gripping the club incorrectly. ...


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Herniated Disc

A herniated disc (also called a ruptured or slipped disc) is a damaged "cushion" between two bones in the spine (vertebrae). Normally, the gelatinous discs between the vertebrae hold the bones in place and act as shock absorbers, permitting the spine to bend smoothly. When a disc protrudes beyond its normal parameters, and its tough outer layer of cartilage cracks, the disc is considered "herniated." ...


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Lateral Epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is an elbow injury that occurs as a result of the overuse of the muscles and tendons of the forearm and elbow. The pain associated with this condition affects the lateral epicondyle, the area where the tendons of the forearm connect with the bony outer portion of the elbow. Repetitive movement and constant use during certain types of activities may put excessive strain on the elbow tendons. Tennis elbow may occur in tennis players or individuals who participate in certain athletic activities, but may also occur in people who have jobs that involve repetitive motions of the wrist and arm, such as carpenters, or people in construction related trades. ...


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Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain is the most common cause for a work-related disability and one of the main reasons for people staying home from work. The lower back is one of the most important parts of the body as it holds most of our body weight when we stand and is involved in movement when we bend or twist at the waist. Because of its pivotal role and frequent use, the lower back is susceptible to injury and chronic pain. Lower back pain is especially common in older adults who may have decreased bone strength and muscle elasticity. The spongy cartilage pads, called intervertebral discs, that allow for flexibility may wear away and weaken in an elderly person. ...


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Lumbar Facet-Joint Injections

Lumbar facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for lower-back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool to determine whether facet-joint inflammation is the source of the pain. Facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered either into the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting corticosteroid with a local anesthetic. Although the anesthetic provides only very temporary pain relief, the corticosteroid reduces inflammation and can relieve pain for up to a few years. Enduring pain relief from the injection is diagnostically significant, indicating that the pain originates in the facet joint that received the injection. ...


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Medial Epicondylitis

Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer's elbow, is a painful condition in which the tendons connecting the forearm to the elbow have become damaged due to injury or overuse. Previously thought to be a form of tendonitis, or inflammation of the tendon, medial epicondylitis is now considered to be a form of tendonosis in which the collagen fibers making up the tendon have deteriorated. Patients with this condition experience pain on the inside of the elbow that may radiate into the forearm. This pain results when the epicondyle puts pressure on the ulnar nerve, a nerve in the forearm. Most often, medial epicondylitis can be treated successfully by simple measures like resting the arm and applying ice. In some cases, however, it requires surgical correction. ...


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Meniscus Tear

The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of cartilage located in the knee, that acts as a shock absorber between the shinbone and the thighbone. There are two minisci within each knee. The meniscus on the inside part of the knee is known as the medial meniscus and the meniscus located on the outside of the knee is referred to as the lateral meniscus. A meniscus tear may occur during an activity in which the knee is forcibly twisted or rotated. Common injuries in athletes, meniscus tears may also occur in older adults whose cartilage has worn away as a result of of wear and tear, or in anyone who suffers a traumatic injury. ...


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Morton's Neuroma

Morton's neuroma is a painful condition in which excess fibrous tissue accumulates around a nerve in the ball the foot, usually between the third and fourth toes. Patients may experience pain, burning, tingling or numbness in the foot, radiating into the toes, and often report feeling as if they are walking on a pebble. Pain may be soothed by taking weight off the foot or by massaging the area. The pain of Morton's neuroma is likely to worsen over time, becoming more severe and more persistent. The condition is found more frequently in women than in men. ...


Read More...
 

Myofascial Pain

Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic condition in which trigger points (muscle knots) develop in certain muscles, usually ones that have been injured or overused. Jobs and recreational activities that involve repetitive motions, in which muscles repeatedly contract, are common causes. Trigger points can also be caused by stress and anxiety. Myofascial pain is most common in middle-aged adults, although people of any age may be affected. ...


Read More...
 

Nerve Pain

Nerve pain often results from nerve entrapment syndrome, the damage caused when a nerve is pinched or compressed. Patients with this condition may experience mild or severe pain that is temporary or chronic. The nerves of the body extend from the brain and spinal cord, threading through to every region of the body. The compression of the nerve can take place in the spine, causing pain to radiate into the limbs, or can take place in other parts of the body. It may occur do to a traumatic injury, repeated stress, or an underlying disease condition. ...


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Osteoarthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It develops as the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wears down over time. Over the years, as stress is put on the joints, cartilage wears thin and sometimes even erodes completely, resulting in stiffness and pain. It occurs more frequently in older individuals, however it sometimes develops in athletes from overuse of a joint or after an injury. It commonly affects the fingers, knees, lower back and hips, and is often treated with medication, specific exercises, and physical therapy. In severe cases, joint replacement surgery may be suggested. Osteoarthritis tends to get worse over time. ...


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Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is a treatment method for improving limited body movement and functionality that are a result of disease, injury or aging. Treatment involves restorative exercises that focus on developing muscle strength, flexibility, balance, posture and coordination, and that provide overall pain relief. Physical therapy is designed to promote a patient's overall health and fitness, prevent reinjury and maximize quality of life. It may be prescribed as an initial form of treatment for certain conditions or injuries, or to restore strength and function after surgery. ...


Read More...
 

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


Read More...
 

Platelet-Rich-Plasma Injections

Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections use components of the body's own blood to stimulate healing. Platelets, which are usually associated with coagulation (clotting), are also, according to recent research, able to assist in mending and strengthening damaged tissue by increasing certain growth factors. During the normal healing process, the body uses platelets to promote new-tissue growth and repair injuries. By supplementing platelet content, the healing process is accelerated. There is ongoing research on the efficacy of PRP injections, and some medical professionals remain skeptical about their value. ...


Read More...
 

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is one of four ligaments that helps support the knee and protects the shin bone (tibia) from sliding too far backwards. The cruciate ligaments are located inside the knee joint and cross over each other, forming an "X". The anterior cruciate ligament is in the front and the posterior cruciate ligament is located behind it in the back of the knee. These ligaments control the back and forth motion of the knee. ...


Read More...
 

Prolotherapy

Prolotherapy (proliferative therapy) is a treatment for patients with chronic joint and muscle pain; it is offered as an alternative to over-the-counter pain relievers (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and, in some cases, surgery. Prolotherapy is based on the premise that the injection of a mild irritant, usually dextrose, into a joint, ligament or tendon triggers a localized inflammatory response, thereby stimulating an increase in blood supply to damaged tissue. With this increased blood flow comes an increased supply of immune cells and collagen to assist in repairing the damage, and stimulating the formation of new, healthy connective tissue. ...


Read More...
 

Prolozone® Therapy

Prolozone® therapy is an alternative, nonsurgical treatment that may be used for all forms of musculoskeletal and joint pain. It involves injection therapy of collagen-producing substances and ozone gas into the patient's connective tissue. Such injections have been shown to result in the reconstruction of damaged tissue. Prolozone therapy is an improvement over traditional prolotherapy because of its use of ozone, a substance that stimulates the body's ability to repair joints. Prolozone is used more commonly in Europe than in the United States. ...


Read More...
 

Prolotherapy FAQs

Prolotherapy (proliferative therapy) is a treatment method for chronic pain. Its proposed mechanism of action is that a precise injection of a dextrose and lidocaine solution triggers a localized inflammatory response, thereby stimulating blood supply to the area and prompting the incoming supply of immune cells to repair the tissue. Prolotherapy can stimulate the formation of new, healthy tissue in an area in which existing tissue has been damaged or weakened. ...


Read More...
 

Shoulder FAQs

What are possible causes of shoulder pain?

Shoulder pain is a common ailment experienced by many people, although the incidence of shoulder pain tends to increase with age. This pain may be caused by a number of different shoulder conditions, and may be acute or chronic, and caused by injury or overuse. Damage or injury may occur within the muscles, ligaments, tendons and bones. Common shoulder conditions may include: ...


Read More...
 

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is a displacement of one of the bones of the spine. When the displaced vertebra slips out of its normal location onto the bone beneath it, it may compress a spinal nerve, causing pain. This condition most commonly occurs in the lumbar (lower) region of the back and may occur for a variety of reasons. Spondylolisthesis is graded by radiologists according to the amount of slippage that has occurred, Grade I being the mildest displacement and Grade IV the most serious. ...


Read More...
 

Steroid Injections for Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes, pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints. Treatment for arthritis may vary, but the main goal is to reduce inflammation and pain. Most patients may try several different treatment options before finding a method that works best for their individual condition. Steroid injections are an advanced treatment option for patients with arthritis and other sources of joint pain, that have not responded well to other treatments such as exercise and oral medications. These injections deliver relief directly to the source of the pain but are not considered safe for all patients. Alternatively, Regenerative medicine techniques are considered safe, natural, and without side effects. ...


Read More...
 

Tarsal Tunnel Injections

Tarsal tunnel injections are a treatment for tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, a condition characterized by chronic pain in the foot and ankle. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by abnormal compression on the tibial nerve, a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies sensation to the foot. Although tarsal tunnel syndrome is not a serious condition, the pain it causes can be acute. Patients may also experience sensations of burning, cramping, tingling or numbness. Fortunately, tarsal tunnel injections can provide welcome relief from these symptoms. ...


Read More...
 

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is a disorder of the foot that may result in significant pain. The tarsal tunnel, the canal that runs between the inner ankle and the band of ligaments that stretch across the foot, houses several vital arteries, nerves and tendons, which provide flexibility to the foot. Since the walls of this tunnel consist of either bone or tough fibrous material through which these blood vessels, tendons and nerves have to pass, the inflexibility of the walls may create a problem. ...


Read More...
 

Tendinosis

Tendinosis, as opposed to acute tendonitis, is a chronic degenerative disorder, involving tiny tears in the connective tissue of the tendons, the bands that connect muscle to bone. This condition can occur anywhere in the body, but most often affects the shoulder, knee, biceps and Achilles tendons. This condition frequently affects athletes and happens when too much stress is placed on the tendon as a result of overuse, improper movement technique or traumatic injury. ...


Read More...
 

Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an inflammation of one of the tendons, the soft flexible cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone. Such inflammations can occur as a result of overuse or traumatic injury. Tendonitis can occur anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in joints such as the shoulder, knee, wrist, ankle and elbow. ...


Read More...
 

Tennis-Related Injuries

Swinging a tennis racket over and over may be good exercise, but it puts a lot of strain on the elbow and shoulder, and can cause some painful repetitive-motion injuries. The most common injury is tennis elbow, which is an inflammation of the muscles and tendons of the forearm where they attach to the humerus (upper arm) bone. The backhand stroke is usually the culprit. The pain manifests itself in the outer elbow, and often gets worse unless it is treated. Tennis elbow can make everyday activities that involve using the arm painful. ...


Read More...
 

Trigger-Point Injections

Trigger-point injections treat pain in areas that have developed trigger points, which are knots of muscle that form when muscles contract and but cannot relax. Trigger points are caused by injury to or overuse of the affected muscle; they can also be caused by stress and anxiety. They can irritate the nerves around them, which causes pain in other areas of the body. The chronic pain brought on by trigger points can also decrease the affected muscle's range of motion. ...


Read More...
 

Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Arthritis is commonly caused by the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wearing down over time, or an inflammation in the lining of the joints, which in addition to pain, may result in redness, heat, swelling and loss of movement in the affected joints. Over time, joints affected by arthritis may become severely damaged. There are different types of arthritis, and depending on the cause, may affect people of different ages. Some types of arthritis may cause damage to other organs of the body in addition to the joints. ...


Read More...
 

Ultrasound-Guided Joint Injections

Joint injections are a minimally invasive treatment for relieving pain caused by inflammatory joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, tendonitis, bursitis and gout. To reduce pain and inflammation from these conditions, medications such as corticosteroids and hyaluronic-acid preparations are sometimes injected into the problem joint. The medications affect only the targeted areas, and usually do not cause side effects. Joint injections are administered under local anesthesia, and cause only brief, mild discomfort. ...


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Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis, commonly known as joint aspiration, is a non-surgical procedure during which excess synovial fluid (fluid from a joint) is drained with a sterile needle and syringe. Usually performed in the doctor's office, arthrocentesis is administered to provide relief to patients with swelling, inflammation, and pain in any joint where there is an excess accumulation of fluid (effusion). Joints typically drained in this way include the shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, wrist, or ankle. ...


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Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

The rotator cuff is the thick band of muscles and associated tendons that cover the top of the upper arm and hold in it place, providing support and stability to the shoulder joint. The rotator cuff also allows for a full range of motion while keeping the ball of the arm bone in the shoulder socket. These tendons can become partially or completely torn as a result of a rotator cuff tear or injury. A rotator cuff tear often occurs as a result of injury or overuse of the muscles over a long period of time. Rotator cuff tears typically involve pain when lifting or lowering the arm, muscle weakness and atrophy, and discomfort at rest, particularly if pressure is placed on the affected shoulder. ...


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Bursal Sac Injections

A bursal sac is filled with fluid that provides a cushion between muscles/tendons and bones to decrease friction and irritation. There are bursal sacs around most of the body's joints. When a bursal sac gets infected or inflamed, it can lead to a painful condition called "bursitis." Although often caused by repetitive movement or overuse of a joint during sports or intense physical activity, bursitis can also result from injury, or arthritis of a joint. ...


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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The carpal tunnel is a narrow, fibrous passage in the wrist that protects the median nerve, which runs down the length of arm and through the wrist into the hand. It controls some hand movement, and sensation in the thumb, index and middle fingers, and half of the ring finger. Irritation or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel can cause tingling and numbness in the fingers, a condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). ...


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Corticosteroid Injections

Corticosteroid injections have been used for decades to temporarily relieve pain and inflammation in joints and soft tissues, and to relieve systemic inflammatory reactions. The advantage to injecting corticosteroid medication rather than taking it orally is that it is delivered more quickly to the affected area and often has more effective results. Corticosteroid injections are routinely used to reduce the pain and swelling of bursitis, tendonitis and arthritis. In addition, they are helpful in treating lupus, scleroderma and severe allergic reactions. Corticosteroid injections are also very effective in reducing spinal or radiating limb pain (radicular pain) when injected into the epidural space, which is between the dura, the outer layer covering the brain and spinal column, and the spine itself. When used this way, they are referred to as epidurals, which are frequently used for labor pains during childbirth. ...


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De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

De Quervain's tenosynovitis is an inflammation of the two tendons that run from the back of thumb and down the side of the wrist. The causes of De Quervain's tenosynovitis are unknown, but it has been linked to wrist injury, overuse/repetitive motion, pregnancy and inflammatory arthritis. It is much more common in women than in men, and in people who have diabetes or arthritis. The disease was first identified in 1895 by Fritz de Quervain, after whom it is named. ...


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Dupuytren's Contracture

Dupuytren's contracture is a rare hand disorder caused by a thickening of the layer of fibrous tissue beneath the skin of the palm and the finger(s). This thickening causes tendons to tighten (contract), which makes the finger difficult to extend. As a result, the finger is continually "curled up." Although more common in men than women, the cause of Dupuytren's contracture is unknown. However, people who get the condition tend to drink significant amounts of alcohol; have diabetes; smoke; or have seizures similar to those from epilepsy. ...


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Enthesopathy

Enthesopathy is a disorder of the entheses, which are the connective tissues between bones and tendons or ligaments. Enthesopathy occurs when these tissues have been damaged, due to overuse, injury or infection. It may also be caused by an inflammatory condition such as psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis, or gout. Some research indicates that enthesopathy may develop as a result of an autoimmune disorder. Enthesopathy may develop in various parts of the body, including the shoulders, hips, elbows, wrists, knees, heels or feet. This condition is typically found in individuals over the age of 50, and is usually characterized by symptoms of severe pain and inflammation. ...


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Entrapped Nerve Hydrodissection

Entrapped nerve hydrodissection is a minimally invasive non-surgical procedure that uses ultrasound technology to alleviate symptoms of compressed nerve disorders. Compressed nerve disorders result when direct pressure is placed on a single nerve, producing numbness, pain, weakness or a tingling sensation. Compressed nerve disorders may be caused by a variety of factors, including health conditions such as diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, injury, pregnancy or obesity. Entrapped nerve hydrodissection is generally recommended as a treatment for compressed nerve disorders after conservative treatments have been unsuccessful at relieving painful symptoms. ...


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Facet Joint Syndrome

Facet joint syndrome is a condition that occurs when the facet joints of the spine become damaged or worn out. The facet joints are the small joints located between the bones of the spine; they are lined with cartilage and synovial fluid that allows them to glide easily over each other. They are also intertwined with nerves that run from the spinal cord to the arms, legs and other parts of the body. The facet joints are in constant motion and provide the spine with flexibility that allows movement, and stability that keeps the back from moving too far forward or twisting too far. ...


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Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection is administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue. ...


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Golf-Related Injuries

Swinging a golf club may look easy, but it can actually lead to a host of injuries, many of which may require treatment. Not surprisingly, thanks to the pressure a golf swing exerts, the lower back is the area that sustains the greatest number of reported injuries each year. Coming in a close second, however, is the elbow, which is subject to two types of problems, medial epicondylitis, also known as "golfer's elbow," and lateral epicondylitis, also called "tennis elbow." With golfer's elbow, pain manifests itself on the inside of the upper arm near the elbow, whereas with tennis elbow, the pain is on the outside of the upper arm. Both of these conditions are usually caused by chronic overuse and not traumatic injury, and are possibly the result of gripping the club incorrectly. ...


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Herniated Disc

A herniated disc (also called a ruptured or slipped disc) is a damaged "cushion" between two bones in the spine (vertebrae). Normally, the gelatinous discs between the vertebrae hold the bones in place and act as shock absorbers, permitting the spine to bend smoothly. When a disc protrudes beyond its normal parameters, and its tough outer layer of cartilage cracks, the disc is considered "herniated." ...


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Lateral Epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is an elbow injury that occurs as a result of the overuse of the muscles and tendons of the forearm and elbow. The pain associated with this condition affects the lateral epicondyle, the area where the tendons of the forearm connect with the bony outer portion of the elbow. Repetitive movement and constant use during certain types of activities may put excessive strain on the elbow tendons. Tennis elbow may occur in tennis players or individuals who participate in certain athletic activities, but may also occur in people who have jobs that involve repetitive motions of the wrist and arm, such as carpenters, or people in construction related trades. ...


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Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain is the most common cause for a work-related disability and one of the main reasons for people staying home from work. The lower back is one of the most important parts of the body as it holds most of our body weight when we stand and is involved in movement when we bend or twist at the waist. Because of its pivotal role and frequent use, the lower back is susceptible to injury and chronic pain. Lower back pain is especially common in older adults who may have decreased bone strength and muscle elasticity. The spongy cartilage pads, called intervertebral discs, that allow for flexibility may wear away and weaken in an elderly person. ...


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Lumbar Facet-Joint Injections

Lumbar facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for lower-back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool to determine whether facet-joint inflammation is the source of the pain. Facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered either into the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting corticosteroid with a local anesthetic. Although the anesthetic provides only very temporary pain relief, the corticosteroid reduces inflammation and can relieve pain for up to a few years. Enduring pain relief from the injection is diagnostically significant, indicating that the pain originates in the facet joint that received the injection. ...


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Medial Epicondylitis

Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer's elbow, is a painful condition in which the tendons connecting the forearm to the elbow have become damaged due to injury or overuse. Previously thought to be a form of tendonitis, or inflammation of the tendon, medial epicondylitis is now considered to be a form of tendonosis in which the collagen fibers making up the tendon have deteriorated. Patients with this condition experience pain on the inside of the elbow that may radiate into the forearm. This pain results when the epicondyle puts pressure on the ulnar nerve, a nerve in the forearm. Most often, medial epicondylitis can be treated successfully by simple measures like resting the arm and applying ice. In some cases, however, it requires surgical correction. ...


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Meniscus Tear

The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of cartilage located in the knee, that acts as a shock absorber between the shinbone and the thighbone. There are two minisci within each knee. The meniscus on the inside part of the knee is known as the medial meniscus and the meniscus located on the outside of the knee is referred to as the lateral meniscus. A meniscus tear may occur during an activity in which the knee is forcibly twisted or rotated. Common injuries in athletes, meniscus tears may also occur in older adults whose cartilage has worn away as a result of of wear and tear, or in anyone who suffers a traumatic injury. ...


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Morton's Neuroma

Morton's neuroma is a painful condition in which excess fibrous tissue accumulates around a nerve in the ball the foot, usually between the third and fourth toes. Patients may experience pain, burning, tingling or numbness in the foot, radiating into the toes, and often report feeling as if they are walking on a pebble. Pain may be soothed by taking weight off the foot or by massaging the area. The pain of Morton's neuroma is likely to worsen over time, becoming more severe and more persistent. The condition is found more frequently in women than in men. ...


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Myofascial Pain

Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic condition in which trigger points (muscle knots) develop in certain muscles, usually ones that have been injured or overused. Jobs and recreational activities that involve repetitive motions, in which muscles repeatedly contract, are common causes. Trigger points can also be caused by stress and anxiety. Myofascial pain is most common in middle-aged adults, although people of any age may be affected. ...


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Nerve Pain

Nerve pain often results from nerve entrapment syndrome, the damage caused when a nerve is pinched or compressed. Patients with this condition may experience mild or severe pain that is temporary or chronic. The nerves of the body extend from the brain and spinal cord, threading through to every region of the body. The compression of the nerve can take place in the spine, causing pain to radiate into the limbs, or can take place in other parts of the body. It may occur do to a traumatic injury, repeated stress, or an underlying disease condition. ...


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Osteoarthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It develops as the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wears down over time. Over the years, as stress is put on the joints, cartilage wears thin and sometimes even erodes completely, resulting in stiffness and pain. It occurs more frequently in older individuals, however it sometimes develops in athletes from overuse of a joint or after an injury. It commonly affects the fingers, knees, lower back and hips, and is often treated with medication, specific exercises, and physical therapy. In severe cases, joint replacement surgery may be suggested. Osteoarthritis tends to get worse over time. ...


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Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is a treatment method for improving limited body movement and functionality that are a result of disease, injury or aging. Treatment involves restorative exercises that focus on developing muscle strength, flexibility, balance, posture and coordination, and that provide overall pain relief. Physical therapy is designed to promote a patient's overall health and fitness, prevent reinjury and maximize quality of life. It may be prescribed as an initial form of treatment for certain conditions or injuries, or to restore strength and function after surgery. ...


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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


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Platelet-Rich-Plasma Injections

Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections use components of the body's own blood to stimulate healing. Platelets, which are usually associated with coagulation (clotting), are also, according to recent research, able to assist in mending and strengthening damaged tissue by increasing certain growth factors. During the normal healing process, the body uses platelets to promote new-tissue growth and repair injuries. By supplementing platelet content, the healing process is accelerated. There is ongoing research on the efficacy of PRP injections, and some medical professionals remain skeptical about their value. ...


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Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is one of four ligaments that helps support the knee and protects the shin bone (tibia) from sliding too far backwards. The cruciate ligaments are located inside the knee joint and cross over each other, forming an "X". The anterior cruciate ligament is in the front and the posterior cruciate ligament is located behind it in the back of the knee. These ligaments control the back and forth motion of the knee. ...


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Prolotherapy

Prolotherapy (proliferative therapy) is a treatment for patients with chronic joint and muscle pain; it is offered as an alternative to over-the-counter pain relievers (NSAIDs), corticosteroids and, in some cases, surgery. Prolotherapy is based on the premise that the injection of a mild irritant, usually dextrose, into a joint, ligament or tendon triggers a localized inflammatory response, thereby stimulating an increase in blood supply to damaged tissue. With this increased blood flow comes an increased supply of immune cells and collagen to assist in repairing the damage, and stimulating the formation of new, healthy connective tissue. ...


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Prolozone® Therapy

Prolozone® therapy is an alternative, nonsurgical treatment that may be used for all forms of musculoskeletal and joint pain. It involves injection therapy of collagen-producing substances and ozone gas into the patient's connective tissue. Such injections have been shown to result in the reconstruction of damaged tissue. Prolozone therapy is an improvement over traditional prolotherapy because of its use of ozone, a substance that stimulates the body's ability to repair joints. Prolozone is used more commonly in Europe than in the United States. ...


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Prolotherapy FAQs

Prolotherapy (proliferative therapy) is a treatment method for chronic pain. Its proposed mechanism of action is that a precise injection of a dextrose and lidocaine solution triggers a localized inflammatory response, thereby stimulating blood supply to the area and prompting the incoming supply of immune cells to repair the tissue. Prolotherapy can stimulate the formation of new, healthy tissue in an area in which existing tissue has been damaged or weakened. ...


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Shoulder FAQs

What are possible causes of shoulder pain?

Shoulder pain is a common ailment experienced by many people, although the incidence of shoulder pain tends to increase with age. This pain may be caused by a number of different shoulder conditions, and may be acute or chronic, and caused by injury or overuse. Damage or injury may occur within the muscles, ligaments, tendons and bones. Common shoulder conditions may include: ...


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Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is a displacement of one of the bones of the spine. When the displaced vertebra slips out of its normal location onto the bone beneath it, it may compress a spinal nerve, causing pain. This condition most commonly occurs in the lumbar (lower) region of the back and may occur for a variety of reasons. Spondylolisthesis is graded by radiologists according to the amount of slippage that has occurred, Grade I being the mildest displacement and Grade IV the most serious. ...


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Steroid Injections for Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes, pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints. Treatment for arthritis may vary, but the main goal is to reduce inflammation and pain. Most patients may try several different treatment options before finding a method that works best for their individual condition. Steroid injections are an advanced treatment option for patients with arthritis and other sources of joint pain, that have not responded well to other treatments such as exercise and oral medications. These injections deliver relief directly to the source of the pain but are not considered safe for all patients. Alternatively, Regenerative medicine techniques are considered safe, natural, and without side effects. ...


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Tarsal Tunnel Injections

Tarsal tunnel injections are a treatment for tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, a condition characterized by chronic pain in the foot and ankle. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by abnormal compression on the tibial nerve, a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies sensation to the foot. Although tarsal tunnel syndrome is not a serious condition, the pain it causes can be acute. Patients may also experience sensations of burning, cramping, tingling or numbness. Fortunately, tarsal tunnel injections can provide welcome relief from these symptoms. ...


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Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome, also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is a disorder of the foot that may result in significant pain. The tarsal tunnel, the canal that runs between the inner ankle and the band of ligaments that stretch across the foot, houses several vital arteries, nerves and tendons, which provide flexibility to the foot. Since the walls of this tunnel consist of either bone or tough fibrous material through which these blood vessels, tendons and nerves have to pass, the inflexibility of the walls may create a problem. ...


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Tendinosis

Tendinosis, as opposed to acute tendonitis, is a chronic degenerative disorder, involving tiny tears in the connective tissue of the tendons, the bands that connect muscle to bone. This condition can occur anywhere in the body, but most often affects the shoulder, knee, biceps and Achilles tendons. This condition frequently affects athletes and happens when too much stress is placed on the tendon as a result of overuse, improper movement technique or traumatic injury. ...


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Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an inflammation of one of the tendons, the soft flexible cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone. Such inflammations can occur as a result of overuse or traumatic injury. Tendonitis can occur anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in joints such as the shoulder, knee, wrist, ankle and elbow. ...


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Tennis-Related Injuries

Swinging a tennis racket over and over may be good exercise, but it puts a lot of strain on the elbow and shoulder, and can cause some painful repetitive-motion injuries. The most common injury is tennis elbow, which is an inflammation of the muscles and tendons of the forearm where they attach to the humerus (upper arm) bone. The backhand stroke is usually the culprit. The pain manifests itself in the outer elbow, and often gets worse unless it is treated. Tennis elbow can make everyday activities that involve using the arm painful. ...


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Trigger-Point Injections

Trigger-point injections treat pain in areas that have developed trigger points, which are knots of muscle that form when muscles contract and but cannot relax. Trigger points are caused by injury to or overuse of the affected muscle; they can also be caused by stress and anxiety. They can irritate the nerves around them, which causes pain in other areas of the body. The chronic pain brought on by trigger points can also decrease the affected muscle's range of motion. ...


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Arthritis

Arthritis is a condition that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Arthritis is commonly caused by the cartilage protecting the bones of a joint wearing down over time, or an inflammation in the lining of the joints, which in addition to pain, may result in redness, heat, swelling and loss of movement in the affected joints. Over time, joints affected by arthritis may become severely damaged. There are different types of arthritis, and depending on the cause, may affect people of different ages. Some types of arthritis may cause damage to other organs of the body in addition to the joints. ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Joint Injections

Joint injections are a minimally invasive treatment for relieving pain caused by inflammatory joint conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, tendonitis, bursitis and gout. To reduce pain and inflammation from these conditions, medications such as corticosteroids and hyaluronic-acid preparations are sometimes injected into the problem joint. The medications affect only the targeted areas, and usually do not cause side effects. Joint injections are administered under local anesthesia, and cause only brief, mild discomfort. ...


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